From a Chinese paper in Hong Kong :

[FBIS Translated Text]    

After the "Shanghai Cooperation Organization"  was
formed in mid-June, 2001, its six member states, namely, China,  Russia,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, signed their  first joint
legal document entitled "The Shanghai Convention on Combating  Terrorism,
Separatism, and Extremism
," aside from issuing a series of  statements and
measures to this end, such as setting up in Bishkek, the  capital of
Kyrgyzstan, "The Shanghai Cooperation Organization Center against Terrorism,"
and these moves have since played a strong motivating  role in maintaining and
enhancing security and stability in the relevant countries, and in the
Asia-Pacific region as a whole, finding a strong  echo in the international
community, and drawing worldwide attention as  well.   In order to cover the
latest developments in this respect, our reporters the other day arrived in
Xinjiang, the forefront for fighting against the aforementioned three evil

Situated in China's northwest frontier, Xinjiang also borders -- along a
boundary line of 5,000-odd kilometers -- eight neighboring countries including
Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan,
and India.   Inhabited by various nationalities, mostly believers of Islam,
Xinjiang is a region that has maintained traditional ties with various
nationalities in the neighboring countries
as well, in language, religion, and
culture, and its people of the Kazakh, Kirghiz, Tajik, Uzbek, Mongolian,
Russian, and Tartar nationalities also live across the border areas.   In view
of this, it is believed that Xinjiang's geopolitical situation is the key
international factor bearing on Xinjiang' security and stability

After the Cold War ended, drastic changes occurred in the world, and the
"three isms" (terrorism, separatism, and extremism) began running wild in
Central Asia
, and have since become a source threatening Central Asia's peace,
security, and stability.   Being conducive to the signatory states in
maintaining political stability, economic development, and social security,
"The Shanghai Convention" has also created a favorable environment in Central
Asia for various countries to strengthen economic
with each other on a larger scale. Indeed, "The Shanghai
Convention" has given a powerful impetus to peace and security in the
Asia-Pacific region. Musa, a veteran scholar who has studied Islam at the
Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences for decades, told our reporters:  "The six
countries, namely, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and
Uzbekistan, signing 'The Shanghai Convention' is indeed a matter of tremendous
and far-reaching significance:
  First, 'The Shanghai Convention' shows that
the signatory states have taken a substantial step forward in cooperation, thus
providing a legal guarantee for mounting a unified crackdown on the 'three evil
,' and sounding  the death knell of the 'three evil forces,' which have
run wild in  Central Asia, as well.   In this sense, 'The Shanghai Convention'
is of tremendous realistic significance to maintaining peace and development
in Central Asia, Asia, as well as the world; Second, insofar as China is
concerned, though Xinjiang has enjoyed uninterrupted social stability and
economic prosperity, where people of all nationalities have lived and worked
in harmony, unity, peace, and contentment, the Central Asia-based  'three evil
forces' have intensified their activities
and become more harmful, and there
are indications that they are likely to pose a threat  to Xinjiang's stability,
and to China's strategy of developing the  western regions on a large scale as
well.   In view of this, a ruthless crackdown on the 'three evil forces'
conforms with China's ultimate national interests, and with the fundamental
interests of all nationalities in China."   With Musa's help, our reporters
found Pan Zhiping, director of the Central Asia Research Institute of the
Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences, who spoke of the relevant issues in an
exclusive interview.

Director Pan Zhiping analyzed and discussed the Central Asia-based  "three evil
forces" in terms of background, status quo, and impact on Xinjiang.

Encircling Like Two Crescent Moons

Geopolitically speaking, the West Asian and South Asian countries have
encircled Central Asia like two crescent moons.
 By and large, the West Asian and South Asian countries are traditionally
states or states with a huge Muslim population (such as India).
After the Soviet Union fell apart, Islam began showing signs of
revival in several newly independent Central Asian states, thus contributing
to the aforementioned encirclement to a certain extent.   Insofar as Central
Asia is concerned, at present, the most influential Muslim states are
Afghanistan, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Iran.

Being the cream of the Central Asia-based Islam fundamentalism, extreme
terrorism was born and has developed and evolved with the support of Saudi
Arabia in West Asia, and Afghanistan and Pakistan in South Asia, which have
offered influence and support it to a certain extent, serving even as overseas
havens or base camps for the Central Asia-based terrorist groups.   The
Central Asia-based terrorists have received training in religious extremism
and obtained economic aid from Saudi Arabia, or have undergone training in,
obtained weapons and funds from, and built rear bases inside Afghanistan or
Due to the neighboring states' support for terrorists, the Central Asian
countries have found themselves embarrassingly unable to weed out
or drive
out, once and for all, terrorism, separatism, and extremism.   Also, due to
political struggles between different political factions in the Central Asian
countries, the aforementioned "three evil forces" have also shifted the focus
of activities from West Asia to Central
, and begun encircling Central Asia like two crescent moons, with
Chechnya-Afghanistan-Kashmir serving as the bigger crescent moon, and
as the smaller crescent moon.   This explains why Central Asia has found itself
facing a  new geopolitical situation.

Viewed from modern geopolitics, Xinjiang still maintains geopolitical,
economic, and cultural ties with the Central Asian, West Asian, and South
countries to a certain extent.   As a result, the Central Asian, West
Asian, and South Asian countries' strategies towards Central Asia will
inevitably have an impact on China.   As a matter of fact, the "three 'isms"
growth in Central Asia in modern times has already undermined Xinjiang's
stability and unity.

 Separatist Forces Joining Forces in Launching Attacks

Increasingly, Xinjiang's ethnic separatist forces abroad have tended to join
in launching attacks, replacing scattered operations with regional
operations, and even with transregional, transnational, multi-level, and joint
operations, and such an initial tendency may be viewed at the following three

1. Regional operations.   Recently, three groups, namely, "The Uygur
Transnational Alliance," "The Uygur Liberation Organization," and "The Dongtu
International Committee" have set up "The Central Asian Uygur Alliance" in
order to join forces and build a joint command for a joint strategy;

 2. Transregional and transnational operations.   At the end of 1999, Osama
bin Laden presided over a meeting held in Kabul by the Islam  "Suroyi"
Committee.   Attended by the representatives of the Central Asia-based
Xinjiang ethnic separatist groups, the leaders of the Islam Movement of
Uzbekistan in Uzbekistan, and the senior members of the Taliban group, the
meeting discussed "fighting a holy war in Xinjiang," at which Osama bin Laden
proposed that the Central Asia-based and China-based Xinjiang ethnic
separatist groups first cooperate with the Islam Movement of Uzbekistan,
saying that his Islam "Suroyi" Committee will provide funds in a unified way
to various groups that carry out, in  an organized and planned way, activities
aimed at splitting Xinjiang from  China.  Having made clear its goal,
development plan, and strategy, the meeting intensified and upgraded lateral
cooperation among different Xinjiang ethnic separatist groups; and

 3. Hostile forces in the western countries, as well as in Central Asia and
West Asia,
have cooperated, in an all-round way and on a large scale, with
"Dongtu independence," "Tibet independence," and "Taiwan independence" forces,
and this is a choice they have made in accordance with their respective needs.

The Central Asian and West Asian ethnic separatist groups have gone all out to
seek support from the United States and other Western countries, in an attempt
to build an anti-China alliance through the US-based "Free Asia International
Forum," and to coordinate with the anti-China forces in the world headed by
the United States, in implementing a strategy aimed at "Westernizing" and
"dividing" China.
In particular, these ethnic separatist forces have made an attempt to
"internationalize the issue of Dongtu independence" through
"internationalizing the human rights issues in Dongtu."   After succeeding his
father as the leader of the Aisha Group, a Xinjiang ethnic separatist group
based in Turkey, Aierken frequently traveled to the United States and Germany,
where he met with the officials of some UN Security Council member nations,
hoping to have the issue of "Dongtu independence" entered into the UN
agenda.   Especially, after the Kosovo War broke out, the leaders of various
ethnic separatist forces based in Central Asia, West Asia, Europe, the United
States, and some other countries and regions time and again gathered in
Uzbekistan's Tashkent and Turkey's Istanbul, where they discussed the issue of
forming an alliance and formulating "a joint fighting strategy" in an attempt
to speed up the process of internationalizing "Dongtu independence."

Aside from joining forces with one another, various Xinjiang ethnic separatist
forces at home and abroad have also intensified efforts in forging ties with
other separatist forces, such as "Tibet independence" forces, "Taiwan
independence" forces, and "democracy movement" forces. Over the past few
years, the Central Asia-based Xinjiang ethnic separatist groups have held
several so called "Uygur Conferences," inviting the representatives of Turkey,
Pakistan, and Mongolia, as well as the representatives of the Dalai clique and
"Taiwan independence" forces, to attend.  "The Dongtukistan National
Liberation Alliance," set up by Aierken and others, has also set up a
department for coordinating activities in Xinjiang, Mongolia, and Tibet.
Aierken also personally presided over a three-party conference attended by the
representatives of  "The Dongtukistan Independence Organization," "The Tibetan
Youth Congress," and "The Inner Mongolia National Liberation Front," and the
conference decided that various ethnic separatist groups should work hard  to
"have the issue of ethnic independence internationalized" with the help of the
Western countries headed by the United States, taking "human rights" and "right
to ethnic determination" to create a fissure in this regard.

Training Separatist Forces in Real Wars

Aside from going all out to seek support from the so-called  "international
community," Xinjiang ethnic separatist forces have also sent a number of
selected separatists to undergo training at various training camps built by
terrorists in Central Asia and West Asia, some of whom have even fought real
wars in Afghanistan and Chechnya.   It should be noted that a new generation
of separatists have become backbone members of Xinjiang ethnic separatist
forces, most of whom, better educated, vigorous, and enthusiastic in
separatist activities, have started playing a key role in various separatist
groups, a role not to be ignored.

Indeed, Xinjiang ethnic separatist forces at home and abroad have colluded
with each other for many years in launching activities aimed at splitting the
motherland, with the same train of thought, namely, using religious issues as
a pretext, and with the same slogan, namely, "defending Islam, opposing pagans,
and liberating Dongtukistan." Because of this, they have gone all-out to
support the Xinjiang-based ethnic separatists, urging them to wage "a holy
war," and have stepped up their armed infiltration into China, colluding with
the Xinjiang-based ethnic separatists in drug trafficking and smuggling, in an
effort to raise funds. Instigated and guided by Xinjiang ethnic separatist
forces abroad, the Xinjiang-based ethnic separatists have reinforced their
forces, preparing weapons and ammunition, carrying out violent terrorist
activities, such as explosions and murder, in several influential areas, and
this has posed a fresh threat to Xinjiang's stability.

Resorting to Terrorism in Separatist Activities

 According to a so-called "30-year plan" mapped out by the deceased
Amaihesumu, the most influential Islam extremist leader, who had once lived in
Xinjiang's Yecheng, Xinjiang ethnic separatist forces should  "devote the first
10 years to whipping up public opinion and training qualified personnel, the
second 10 years to instigating disturbances, and the last 10 years to seizing
power with force."   Clearly, Xinjiang ethnic separatist forces have
fundamentally altered their strategic goal and fully laid bare their political
goal as well, namely, seizing power and splitting the motherland.   Therefore,
the 1980s was a preparatory period for whipping up public opinion and training
qualified personnel, and the 1990s a period for "launching terrorist attacks
and instigating disturbances" in Xinjiang.   After instigating the incident of
"Baren Township Riot" in 1990, Xinjiang ethnic separatist forces moved from
the  "theory" stage onto the "practice" stage.   After that, they began
creating a series of incidents, including the incident of "5 February public
bus explosion" in 1992, the incident of "25 February public bus explosion" in
1997, as well as the riot in Yining City in 1997.   In view of this, the
Xinjiang authorities stepped up their crackdown on rioters and intensified
their efforts in rectifying social order in an all-round way.   As a result,
the ethnic separatists found their planned "big show in 1997" foiled.   After
1998, Xinjiang ethnic separatist forces began revising their strategy,
conducting the bulk of their activities in covert ways.

 In Forefront of Fighting Against Three Evil Forces

As the Central Asia-based three evil forces swelled in ranks, Xinjiang ethnic
separatist groups at home and abroad also stepped collusion among
themselves.   Though the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan has mainly waged a
struggle against the Karimov regime in Uzbekistan, the Chechen extremists have
mainly taken Russia as their target, and the Kashmiri Islamic fundamentalists
have mainly fought against India in support of Pakistan, the crux of the
problem is: First, various Islamic extremist forces are a group of
cross-border international terrorists who regard Muslims as their brothers,
and view terrorists as their comrades-in-arms at the same time; Second,
Xinjiang ethnic separatist  forces have sent their backbone members to undergo
training at Osama bin  Laden's training camp, and at various training camps in
Afghanistan and  Pakistan, and even to fight real wars in Chechnya, Fergana,
and  Afghanistan, and this shows that these forces are moving towards
fundamentalism and terrorism. In the last two years, Xinjiang ethnic
separatist forces abroad have received both moral and material support, and
even aid, from different international terrorist groups, including Osama bin
Laden's group, and have colluded with different international terrorist
groups, including the Taliban group and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, in
an attempt to infiltrate into China with force.

 It should also be noted that the above three evil forces, based in
Afghanistan and Uzbekistan respectively, have been closing in, like two
crescent moons, on China's border areas, from the Fergana Valley to the south
of Xinjiang, for the Fergana Valley and Xinjiang's Kashi and Kezilesu areas
are separated only by a mountain.   Moreover, three training camps built by
the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan inside Uzbekistan -- namely, Karmu,
Jirkatar, and Tawartara -- as well as Bateken, a mountainous area, where the
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan has mounted its attacks over the past two
years, are merely 200-odd kilometers away from China's Irkeshtam, a border
area.   The Taliban group is expected to arrive at the Sino-Afghan border in
the foreseeable future, and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan is set to
create, over the next few years, a series of incidents in Fergana, a valley
separated from the southern Xinjiang by merely a mountain.   Besides, wars are
still going on in Chechnya and Kashmir.   Indeed, Xinjiang ethnic separatist
forces have become a key component of the aforementioned three evil forces in
Central Asia. Already, Xinjiang is in the forefront of fighting against
these three evil forces.